Bullying is an act of oppression, do you know what the causes and types?
The Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection of the Republic of Indonesia explains the term bullying in Indonesian as an act or risk. Bullying is any form or violence that is carried out intentionally by one person or group of people who are stronger or persist continuously.
In a 2014 study by the National Consortium for the Development of Character Schools, it was stated that almost every school in Indonesia had cases of bullying, only verbal and psychological/mental bullying. Statistics of child complaints cases in the education sector in 2011 there were 61 cases, in 2012 there were 130 cases, in 2013 there were 91 cases, in 2014 there were 87 cases.
Bullying is part of aggressive behavior, such as ridicule, insults, and threats. Experts reveal bullying will always involve a balance of power, intent to harm others, threats of further aggression, and terror. Bullying generally causes physical and psychological harm.
Definition of Bullying According to Experts
1. Olweus (1997)Bullying is a negative behavior that causes a person to feel uncomfortable/injured and usually occurs repeatedly which is characterized by an imbalance of power between the perpetrator and the victim.
2. Siswati and Widayanti (2009)Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior. Such as ridicule, insults, and threats are often a inducement that can lead to aggression.
3. ColorosoBullying will always involve an imbalance of power, intent to harm, threats of further aggression, and terror.
Psychological Side of Victims and Bullies
A. The Psychological Side of Bullying Victims
1. Feelings of shame because the object of being bullied is physically related to the victim’s sexual area.
2. Consideration of economic conditions and responsibilities to families that make the victim not act.
3. Social considerations in order to maintain family feelings.The victim does not want the people closest to him to feel ashamed.
4. The lengthy process of reporting victims of bullying puts psychological pressure on victims and their families.
B. The Psychological Side of Bullies
1. The perpetrator’s environment supports bullying someone who has just joined with the aim of providing psychological pressure to be more obedient to the perpetrator.
2. The culture or workplace climate that has been established that bullying new employees is one thing that is ‘allowed’.
3. Work regulation systems and policies that do not provide protection for employees’ work comfort are still low, so that whoever is strong will be the winner.
4. Bullying is a toxic behavior that can spread quickly around them.
Causes of Bullying Behavior
1. Family Factor
Children who grow and develop in less harmonious families, parents who are too emotional and lack of parental attention to their children can cause deviant behavior, one of which is bullying behavior.
2. Peer factor
Bullying behavior in adolescents is caused by peers who have a negative influence by giving the idea both actively and passively that bullying will not have any impact and is a natural thing to do.
3. Mass Media Factor
Children and adolescents are the easiest group to influence, because they are looking for identity so they are very easy to imitate or imitate what they see. Like in movies or soap operas that contain scenes of violence and so on.
Types of Bullying
1. Direct Bullying
Involves physical actions such as punching or kicking or direct verbal actions such as name-calling and insults.
2. Covert Oppression
Bullying that is not easily seen by others and is carried out out of sight, such as removing people from groups or spreading lies or rumors. Because it is not clear, it is often not realized by adults.
3. Cyber Bullying
Cyber bullying is all forms of violence experienced by children or adolescents and carried out by their friends of their age through cyberspace or the internet.